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PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 Jul 10;8(7):e2950. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002950. eCollection 2014 Jul.

Evidence of dengue virus transmission and factors associated with the presence of anti-dengue virus antibodies in humans in three major towns in Cameroon.

Author information

1
Virology Department, Centre Pasteur Cameroon, Member of the International Network of Pasteur Institutes (RIIP), Yaounde, Cameroon.
2
Epidemiology Department, Centre Pasteur Cameroon, Member of the International Network of Pasteur Institutes (RIIP), Yaounde, Cameroon.
3
Institut Pasteur du Laos, Laboratoire des Arbovirus et Maladies Virales Émergentes, Vientiane, Lao PDR.
4
Institut Pasteur de Bangui, Bangui, Central African Republic.
5
IRD, UR 016, Montpellier, France.
6
Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, Antananarivo, Madagascar.
7
Virology Department, Centre Pasteur Cameroon, Member of the International Network of Pasteur Institutes (RIIP), Yaounde, Cameroon; Institut Pasteur de La Guyane, Laboratoire de Virologie, Cayenne, French Guiana.
8
UMR MIVEGEC (IRD 224 - CNRS 5290 - UM1 - UM2), Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Montpellier, France; Equipe Ecologie des Systèmes Vectoriels, Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville, Franceville, Gabon.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Dengue is not well documented in Africa. In Cameroon, data are scarce, but dengue infection has been confirmed in humans. We conducted a study to document risk factors associated with anti-dengue virus Immunoglobulin G seropositivity in humans in three major towns in Cameroon.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:

A cross sectional survey was conducted in Douala, Garoua and Yaounde, using a random cluster sampling design. Participants underwent a standardized interview and were blood sampled. Environmental and housing characteristics were recorded. Randomized houses were prospected to record all water containers, and immature stages of Aedes mosquitoes were collected. Sera were screened for anti-dengue virus IgG and IgM antibodies. Risk factors of seropositivity were tested using logistic regression methods with random effects. Anti-dengue IgG were found from 61.4% of sera in Douala (n = 699), 24.2% in Garoua (n = 728) and 9.8% in Yaounde (n = 603). IgM were found from 0.3% of Douala samples, 0.1% of Garoua samples and 0.0% of Yaounde samples. Seroneutralization on randomly selected IgG positive sera showed that 72% (n = 100) in Douala, 80% (n = 94) in Garoua and 77% (n = 66) in Yaounde had antibodies specific for dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2). Age, temporary house walls materials, having water-storage containers, old tires or toilets in the yard, having no TV, having no air conditioning and having travelled at least once outside the city were independently associated with anti-dengue IgG positivity in Douala. Age, having uncovered water containers, having no TV, not being born in Garoua and not breeding pigs were significant risk factors in Garoua. Recent history of malaria, having banana trees and stagnant water in the yard were independent risk factors in Yaounde.

CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE:

In this survey, most identified risk factors of dengue were related to housing conditions. Poverty and underdevelopment are central to the dengue epidemiology in Cameroon.

PMID:
25009996
PMCID:
PMC4091864
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pntd.0002950
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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