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J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Aug 15;66 Suppl 3:S329-40. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000230.

Effectiveness of mass media interventions for HIV prevention, 1986-2013: a meta-analysis.

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*Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT; †Center for Health, Intervention, and Prevention, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT; ‡Department of Communication, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT and Center for Health Communication and Marketing, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT; §Department of Allied Health Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT.



This meta-analysis was conducted to synthesize evaluations of mass media-delivered HIV prevention interventions, assess the effectiveness of interventions in improving condom use and HIV-related knowledge, and identify moderators of effectiveness.


We systematically searched electronic databases, relevant Web sites, related journals, and reference lists of previous reviews and included studies. Studies that quantitatively evaluated the effectiveness of mass media-delivered HIV prevention using pre-/post-campaign assessments, targeted the general population, reported outcomes of interest, and were available as of September 30, 2013 were eligible for inclusion.


Raters coded report, intervention, and sample characteristics. The standardized mean difference, d, comparing pretest and posttest assessments was calculated for each study sample. Effect sizes were analyzed incorporating random-effects assumptions.


Of the 433 obtained and screened reports, 54 reports containing evaluations of 72 interventions using 93 samples (N = 142,196) met the selection criteria and were included. Campaigns were associated with increases in condom use [d+ = 0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.18 to 0.21], transmission knowledge (d+ = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.18 to 0.41), and prevention knowledge (d+ = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.25 to 0.52). Increases in condom use were larger for longer campaigns and in nations that scored lower on the human development index. Increases in transmission knowledge were larger to the extent that respondents reported greater campaign exposure, for more recent campaigns, and for nations that scored lower on the human development index.


Mass media interventions may be useful in reducing global HIV/AIDS disparities because of their reach and effectiveness.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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