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AMB Express. 2014 Jun 28;4:51. doi: 10.1186/s13568-014-0051-x. eCollection 2014.

Contamination of water resources by pathogenic bacteria.

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Department of Population Health and Reproduction, University of California, Davis, California, USA.
Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA.
Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering & Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas, USA.


Water-borne pathogen contamination in water resources and related diseases are a major water quality concern throughout the world. Increasing interest in controlling water-borne pathogens in water resources evidenced by a large number of recent publications clearly attests to the need for studies that synthesize knowledge from multiple fields covering comparative aspects of pathogen contamination, and unify them in a single place in order to present and address the problem as a whole. Providing a broader perceptive of pathogen contamination in freshwater (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, groundwater) and saline water (estuaries and coastal waters) resources, this review paper attempts to develop the first comprehensive single source of existing information on pathogen contamination in multiple types of water resources. In addition, a comprehensive discussion describes the challenges associated with using indicator organisms. Potential impacts of water resources development on pathogen contamination as well as challenges that lie ahead for addressing pathogen contamination are also discussed.


Contamination; Pathogens; Pathogens transport; Water resources; Watershed

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