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J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2015 Jan;68(1):27-34. doi: 10.1038/ja.2014.91. Epub 2014 Jul 9.

In vitro metabolism of pyripyropene A and ACAT inhibitory activity of its metabolites.

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Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kitasato University, Tokyo, Japan.
1] Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kitasato University, Tokyo, Japan [2] Section on Lipid Sciences, Department of Pathology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.


Pyripyropene A (PPPA, 1) of fungal origin, a selective inhibitor of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2), proved orally active in atherogenic mouse models. The in vitro metabolites of 1 in liver microsomes and plasma of human, rabbit, rat and mouse were analyzed by ultra fast liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In the liver microsomes from all species, successive hydrolysis occurred at the 1-O-acetyl residue, then at the 11-O-acetyl residue of 1, while the 7-O-acetyl residue was resistant to hydrolysis. Furthermore, dehydrogenation of the newly generated 11-alcoholic hydroxyl residue occurred in human and mouse-liver microsomes, while oxidation of the pyridine ring occurred in human and rabbit liver microsomes. On the other hand, hydrolysis of the 7-O-acetyl residue proceeded only in the mouse plasma. These data indicated that the in vitro metabolic profiles of 1 have subtle differences among animal species. All of the PPPA metabolites observed in liver microsomes and plasma markedly decreased ACAT2 inhibitory activity. These findings will help us to synthesize new PPPA derivatives more effective in in vivo study than 1.

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