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Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Sep;68(9):1060-6. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2014.132. Epub 2014 Jul 9.

Carbohydrate intake and glycemic index affect substrate oxidation during a controlled weight cycle in healthy men.

Author information

1
Institute of Nutritional Medicine, University Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.
2
Institute of Human Nutrition and Food Science, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
3
InsuLean GmbH & Co. KG, Essen, Germany.
4
1] Institute of Nutritional Medicine, University Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany [2] Institute of Human Nutrition and Food Science, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:

Because both, glycemic index (GI) and carbohydrate content of the diet increase insulin levels and could thus impair fat oxidation, we hypothesized that refeeding a low GI, moderate-carbohydrate diet facilitates weight maintenance.

SUBJECTS/METHODS:

Healthy men (n=32, age 26.0±3.9 years; BMI 23.4±2.0 kg/m(2)) followed 1 week of controlled overfeeding, 3 weeks of caloric restriction and 2 weeks of hypercaloric refeeding (+50, -50 and +50% energy requirement) with low vs high GI (41 vs 74) and moderate vs high CHO intake (50% vs 65% energy). We measured adaptation of fasting macronutrient oxidation and the capacity to supress fat oxidation during an oral glucose tolerance test. Changes in fat mass were measured by quantitative magnetic resonance.

RESULTS:

During overfeeding, participants gained 1.9±1.2 kg body weight, followed by a weight loss of -6.3±0.6 kg and weight regain of 2.8±1.0 kg. Subjects with 65% CHO gained more body weight compared with 50% CHO diet (P<0.05) particularly with HGI meals (P<0.01). Refeeding a high-GI diet led to an impaired basal fat oxidation when compared with a low-GI diet (P<0.02), especially at 65% CHO intake. Postprandial metabolic flexibility was unaffected by refeeding at 50% CHO but clearly impaired by 65% CHO diet (P<0.05). Impairment in fasting fat oxidation was associated with regain in fat mass (r=0.43, P<0.05) and body weight (r=0.35; P=0.051).

CONCLUSIONS:

Both higher GI and higher carbohydrate content affect substrate oxidation and thus the regain in body weight in healthy men. These results argue in favor of a lower glycemic load diet for weight maintenance after weight loss.

PMID:
25005676
DOI:
10.1038/ejcn.2014.132
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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