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BMC Nephrol. 2014 Jul 8;15:108. doi: 10.1186/1471-2369-15-108.

Adiposity measures, lean body mass, physical activity and mortality: NHANES 1999-2004.

Author information

1
Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue- Q7, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA. navanes@ccf.org.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Obesity and physical inactivity are major public health problems. We studied the associations between measures of adiposity, lean body mass, leisure time physical activity (LTPA), and death in those with and without chronic kidney disease (CKD).

METHODS:

Associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), percent body fat, lean body mass (assessed with Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry[DEXA]), leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and death were examined using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES 1999-2004). All-cause mortality was ascertained by linkage of NHANES files with the National Death Index.

RESULTS:

9,433 non-CKD participants and 2,153 CKD participants who had fat mass measured using DEXA, BMI, WC, LTPA and mortality data were included. After adjusting for demographics, comorbid conditions, kidney function measures, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), and sodium intake there was no significant risk for death noted with higher WC, fat mass and BMI in those with and without CKD. When examining normal, overweight, and obese groups based on BMI criteria, being overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2) was associated with lower risk of death in those without CKD (Hazard ratio 0.62, 95% CI 0.40, 0.95). Higher lean body mass was associated with lower risk for death in those without kidney disease but not in the CKD population. There was a significantly higher risk for death among those who did not meet the minimum LTPA goals compared to those who met or exceeded the recommended activity levels (>450 MET/min/week) in those with and without CKD (CKD Hazard ratio: 1.36, 95% CI 1.003, 1.85; non-CKD HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.21, 2.26).

CONCLUSIONS:

In a representative sample of the US population, higher LTPA levels and lean body mass were associated with lower mortality in those without kidney disease. In CKD, higher LTPA was associated with lower risk of death. There was no association between adiposity measures and death in those with and without CKD except for lower mortality associated with overweight among those without CKD. The data suggests the need to develop programs to facilitate an increase in physical activity in people with and without kidney disease.

PMID:
25005601
PMCID:
PMC4099406
DOI:
10.1186/1471-2369-15-108
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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