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Waste Manag Res. 2014 Aug;32(8):745-54. doi: 10.1177/0734242X14538305. Epub 2014 Jul 8.

CFD analysis of municipal solid waste combustion using detailed chemical kinetic modelling.

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Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering, Columbia University, New York, USA.
Department of Chemical Engineering, City University of New York, New York, USA


Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions from the combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) in waste-to-energy (WtE) facilities are receiving renewed attention to reduce their output further. While NO x emissions are currently 60% below allowed limits, further reductions will decrease the air pollution control (APC) system burden and reduce consumption of NH3. This work combines the incorporation of the GRI 3.0 mechanism as a detailed chemical kinetic model (DCKM) into a custom three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model fully to understand the NO x chemistry in the above-bed burnout zones. Specifically, thermal, prompt and fuel NO formation mechanisms were evaluated for the system and a parametric study was utilized to determine the effect of varying fuel nitrogen conversion intermediates between HCN, NH3 and NO directly. Simulation results indicate that the fuel nitrogen mechanism accounts for 92% of the total NO produced in the system with thermal and prompt mechanisms accounting for the remaining 8%. Results also show a 5% variation in final NO concentration between HCN and NH3 inlet conditions, demonstrating that the fuel nitrogen intermediate assumed is not significant. Furthermore, the conversion ratio of fuel nitrogen to NO was 0.33, revealing that the majority of fuel nitrogen forms N2.


Waste-to-energy (WtE); ammonia (NH3); boiler; computational fluid dynamics (CFD); furnace; hydrogen cyanide (HCN); nitrogen oxides (NO x ); waste incineration

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