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Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2014 Jun;32(2):111-23.

Pharmacogenomics of drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions: challenges, opportunities and clinical implementation.

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1
Division of Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Abstract

Drug hypersensitivity reactions affect many patients leading to a variety of clinical manifestations, mainly the cutaneous adverse reactions ranging from milder skin reactions to severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs). Hypersensitivity reactions are unpredictable and are thought to have an underlying genetic etiology, as suggested by case reports. With the scientific knowledge of pharmacogenomics and the evidence based on the genomic testing, it is possible to identify genetic predisposing factors for these serious adverse reactions and personalize drug therapy. The most significant genetic associations have been identified in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes encoded for human leukocyte antigens (HLA) alleles. Drugs associated with hypersensitivity reactions with strong genetic predisposing factors include abacavir, nevirapine, carbamazepine, and allopurinol. In this review, strong genetic associations of drug-induced SCARs are highlighted so as to improve drug safety and help to select optimal drugs for individual patients. Further investigation, however, is essential for the characterization of other genes involved in the hypersensitivity reactions with the use of several genetic strategies and technologies.

PMID:
25003724
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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