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J Neuroimmunol. 2014 Sep 15;274(1-2):141-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2014.06.013. Epub 2014 Jun 24.

A study of oxidative stress, cytokines and glutamate in Wilson disease and their asymptomatic siblings.

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Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate medical Sciences, Lucknow, India. Electronic address:
Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate medical Sciences, Lucknow, India.
Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India.



Free copper in Wilson disease (WD) is toxic and may reduce antioxidant, increase oxidative stress marker and thereby cytokine release and excitotoxic injury, but there is paucity of studies in humans. We report oxidative stress markers, cytokines and glutamate in neurologic WD and correlate these with their clinical severity, laboratory findings and extent of Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes.


29 patients with neurologic WD and 9 asymptomatic WD siblings were included and their clinical, treatment history, disease severity, biochemical findings and MRI changes were noted. Glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malonodialdehyde (MDA) were measured by spectrophotometer, cytokines by cytokine bead array and glutamate by the fluorometer.


In WD patients, the glutathione (mean±SEM, 2.20±0.06 vs. 2.73±0.04mg/dl, P<0.001) and TAC (1.70±0.03 vs. 2.29±0.02 Trolox_Eq_mmol/l, P<0.001) were reduced, and MDA and glutamate (23.93±0.54 vs. 19.96±0.27μmol/l; P<0.001) were increased (4.7±0.11 vs. 3.03±0.52nmol/ml, P<0.001) compared to controls. The serum IL6 {median (IQRs), 9.42(10.92) vs. 5.2(5.34) pg/ml; P=0.001}, IL8 {12.37(10.92) vs. 5.63(5.52) pg/ml; P<0.001}, IL10 {8.33(8.3) vs. 2.05(1.37) pg/ml; P=0.001} and TNFα {6.14(8.95) vs. 3.61(3.58) pg/ml; P<0.001} were also increased in WD patients compared to controls. These changes were more marked in the neurologic WD compared to asymptomatic WD and in the untreated compared to treated patients. TAC correlated with duration of illness, serum free copper, 24hour urinary copper and serum ceruloplasmin, and glutamate with MDA, TNFα, ceruloplasmin and 24-hour urinary copper.


In WD patients, antioxidants are reduced and MDA, cytokines and glutamate are increased which are more marked in symptomatic neurologic WD than asymptomatic patients.


Copper; Cytokine; Glutamate; Glutathione; Lipid peroxidation; Wilson disease

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