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Pharmacogenomics J. 2014 Dec;14(6):542-8. doi: 10.1038/tpj.2014.31. Epub 2014 Jul 8.

Pharmacogenetics of warfarin in a paediatric population: time in therapeutic range, initial and stable dosing and adverse effects.

Author information

1
1] Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK [2] Department of Research, Alder Hey Children's NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK.
2
Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
3
Department of Biostatistics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
4
Department of Cardiology, Alder Hey Children's NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK.
5
Institute of Child Health, University College London (UCL), London, UK.

Abstract

Warfarin is used in paediatric populations, but dosing algorithms incorporating pharmacogenetic data have not been developed for children. Previous studies have produced estimates of the effect of polymorphisms in Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) on stable warfarin dosing, but data on time in therapeutic range, initial dosing and adverse effects are limited. Participants (n=97) were recruited, and routine clinical data and salivary DNA samples were collected from all participants and analysed for CYP2C9*2, *3 and VKORC1-1639 polymorphisms.VKORC1 -1639 was associated with a greater proportion of the first 6 months' treatment time spent within the target International Normalised Ratio (INR) range, accounting for an additional 9.5% of the variance in the proportion of time. CYP2C9*2 was associated with a greater likelihood of INR values exceeding the target range during the initiation of treatment (odds ratio (OR; per additional copy) 4.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42, 12.34). CYP2C9*2 and VKORC1-1639 were associated with a lower dose requirement, and accounted for almost 12% of the variance in stable dose. VKORC1-1639 was associated with an increased likelihood of mild bleeding complications (OR (heterozygotes vs homozygotes) 4.53, 95% CI 1.59, 12.93). These data show novel associations between VKORC1-1639 and CYP2C9*2 and INR values in children taking warfarin, as well as replicating previous findings with regard to stable dose requirements. The development of pharmacogenomic dosing algorithms for children using warfarin has the potential to improve clinical care in this population.

PMID:
25001883
PMCID:
PMC4209173
DOI:
10.1038/tpj.2014.31
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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