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J Optom. 2014 Jul-Sep;7(3):147-52. doi: 10.1016/j.optom.2013.12.007. Epub 2014 May 10.

Under-correction of human myopia--is it myopigenic?: a retrospective analysis of clinical refraction data.

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College of Optometry, Mid Western University, Glendale, AZ 85308, USA. Electronic address:
College of Optometry, Mid Western University, Glendale, AZ 85308, USA.
Department of Biological and Vision Sciences, SUNY State College of Optometry, New York, NY 10036, USA.



To investigate retrospectively, based on routine clinical records in an optometric office, the effect of refractive under-correction of the myopic spectacle prescription on myopic progression in children and young adults.


Patient records of children and young-adult myopes in a private optometric practice in Glendale, Arizona, USA, were initially reviewed to identify those that met the criteria. Information collected from the patient records included: age, gender, the dates and number of their visits (more than one visit was required for use of the data), final prescription, and non-cycloplegic subjective refraction. For each patient visit, the difference in spherical equivalent (SE) between the subjective refraction for maximum visual acuity and the final prescription was calculated for both the left and right eyes. Myopia progression was defined as the difference in SE between the final subjective refraction of the previous visit and that of the subsequent visit. Based on the study criteria, a total of 275 patient visits were obtained from the data collected in 76 patients.


A significant positive correlation was found between the magnitude of under-correction of the refractive error and myopic progression (r=0.301, p<0.01); that is, the greater the under-correction, the greater the myopic progression. In addition, there was a significant positive correlation between myopia progression and subjective refraction (r=0.166, p=0.006); that is, the greater the degree of myopia, the greater the effect of under-correction. However, there was no significant correlation between myopia progression and either age (r=-0.11, p=0.86) or gender (r=-0.82, p=0.17).


Under-correction of myopia produced a small but progressively greater degree of myopic progression than did full correction. The present finding is consistent with earlier clinical trials and modeling of human myopia.


Accommodation; Acomodación; Corrección insuficiente; Desenfoque retiniano; Miopía; Myopia; Near-work; Retina-defocus; Trabajo de cerca; Under-correction

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