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PLoS One. 2014 Jul 7;9(7):e101789. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101789. eCollection 2014.

The dietary polysaccharide maltodextrin promotes Salmonella survival and mucosal colonization in mice.

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Department of Pathobiology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America; Department of Molecular Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America.
Department of Pathobiology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America.
Department of Anatomic Pathology, Robert J. Tomsich Pathology & Laboratory Medicine Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America.
Department of Biology, John Carroll University, University Heights, Ohio, United States of America.


In the latter half of the 20th century, societal and technological changes led to a shift in the composition of the American diet to include a greater proportion of processed, pre-packaged foods high in fat and carbohydrates, and low in dietary fiber (a "Western diet"). Over the same time period, there have been parallel increases in Salmonella gastroenteritis cases and a broad range of chronic inflammatory diseases associated with intestinal dysbiosis. Several polysaccharide food additives are linked to bacterially-driven intestinal inflammation and may contribute to the pathogenic effects of a Western diet. Therefore, we examined the effect of a ubiquitous polysaccharide food additive, maltodextrin (MDX), on clearance of the enteric pathogen Salmonella using both in vitro and in vivo infection models. When examined in vitro, murine bone marrow-derived macrophages exposed to MDX had altered vesicular trafficking, suppressed NAPDH oxidase expression, and reduced recruitment of NADPH oxidase to Salmonella-containing vesicles, which resulted in persistence of Salmonella in enlarged Rab7+ late endosomal vesicles. In vivo, mice consuming MDX-supplemented water had a breakdown of the anti-microbial mucous layer separating gut bacteria from the intestinal epithelium surface. Additionally, oral infection of these mice with Salmonella resulted in increased cecal bacterial loads and enrichment of lamina propria cells harboring large Rab7+ vesicles. These findings indicate that consumption of processed foods containing the polysaccharide MDX contributes to suppression of intestinal anti-microbial defense mechanisms and may be an environmental priming factor for the development of chronic inflammatory disease.

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