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PLoS One. 2014 Jul 7;9(7):e101567. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101567. eCollection 2014.

Sound asleep: processing and retention of slow oscillation phase-targeted stimuli.

Author information

1
Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Amsterdam Brain and Cognition, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
2
Okazolab Ltd, London, United Kingdom.

Abstract

The sleeping brain retains some residual information processing capacity. Although direct evidence is scarce, a substantial literature suggests the phase of slow oscillations during deep sleep to be an important determinant for stimulus processing. Here, we introduce an algorithm for predicting slow oscillations in real-time. Using this approach to present stimuli directed at both oscillatory up and down states, we show neural stimulus processing depends importantly on the slow oscillation phase. During ensuing wakefulness, however, we did not observe differential brain or behavioral responses to these stimulus categories, suggesting no enduring memories were formed. We speculate that while simpler forms of learning may occur during sleep, neocortically based memories are not readily established during deep sleep.

PMID:
24999803
PMCID:
PMC4084884
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0101567
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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