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Neuroimage. 2014 Nov 1;101:114-23. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.06.070. Epub 2014 Jul 3.

Prenatal cocaine effects on brain structure in early infancy.

Author information

  • 1University of North Carolina, Department of Psychiatry, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA. Electronic address: karen_grewen@med.unc.edu.
  • 2University of North Carolina, Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
  • 3University of Utah, Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA.
  • 4University of North Carolina, Department of Psychiatry, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
  • 5University of North Carolina, Biomedical Research Imaging Center, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

Abstract

Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) is related to subtle deficits in cognitive and behavioral function in infancy, childhood and adolescence. Very little is known about the effects of in utero PCE on early brain development that may contribute to these impairments. The purpose of this study was to examine brain structural differences in infants with and without PCE. We conducted MRI scans of newborns (mean age = 5 weeks) to determine cocaine's impact on early brain structural development. Subjects were three groups of infants: 33 with PCE co-morbid with other drugs, 46 drug-free controls and 40 with prenatal exposure to other drugs (nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, opiates, SSRIs) but without cocaine. Infants with PCE exhibited lesser total gray matter (GM) volume and greater total cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) volume compared with controls and infants with non-cocaine drug exposure. Analysis of regional volumes revealed that whole brain GM differences were driven primarily by lesser GM in prefrontal and frontal brain regions in infants with PCE, while more posterior regions (parietal, occipital) did not differ across groups. Greater CSF volumes in PCE infants were present in prefrontal, frontal and parietal but not occipital regions. Greatest differences (GM reduction, CSF enlargement) in PCE infants were observed in dorsal prefrontal cortex. Results suggest that PCE is associated with structural deficits in neonatal cortical gray matter, specifically in prefrontal and frontal regions involved in executive function and inhibitory control. Longitudinal study is required to determine whether these early differences persist and contribute to deficits in cognitive functions and enhanced risk for drug abuse seen at school age and in later life.

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

CSF enlargement; Cortical gray matter; Infant brain development; Magnetic resonance imaging; Prenatal cocaine; Prenatal substance abuse

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