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J Control Release. 2014 Sep 28;190:172-81. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2014.06.043. Epub 2014 Jul 3.

Ocular delivery of macromolecules.

Author information

1
School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA.
2
Wallace Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering at Georgia Tech and Emory University, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA.
3
School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA; State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Shandong Eye Institute, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China.
4
School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA; Wallace Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering at Georgia Tech and Emory University, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA. Electronic address: prausnitz@gatech.edu.

Abstract

Biopharmaceuticals are making increasing impact on medicine, including treatment of indications in the eye. Macromolecular drugs are typically given by physician-administered invasive delivery methods, because non-invasive ocular delivery methods, such as eye drops, and systemic delivery, have low bioavailability and/or poor ocular targeting. There is a need to improve delivery of biopharmaceuticals to enable less-invasive delivery routes, less-frequent dosing through controlled-release drug delivery and improved drug targeting within the eye to increase efficacy and reduce side effects. This review discusses the barriers to drug delivery via various ophthalmic routes of administration in the context of macromolecule delivery and discusses efforts to develop controlled-release systems for delivery of biopharmaceuticals to the eye. The growing number of macromolecular therapies in the eye needs improved drug delivery methods that increase drug efficacy, safety and patient compliance.

KEYWORDS:

Barriers; Controlled release; Drug delivery; Eye; Macromolecules; Targeting

PMID:
24998941
PMCID:
PMC4142116
DOI:
10.1016/j.jconrel.2014.06.043
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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