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Chemosphere. 2014 Sep;111:560-7. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.05.006. Epub 2014 May 28.

Detection, occurrence and monthly variations of typical lipophilic marine toxins associated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning in the coastal seawater of Qingdao City, China.

Author information

1
Research Center for Marine Ecology, The First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061, China.
2
Research Center for Marine Ecology, The First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061, China. Electronic address: craige2000@hotmail.com.
3
Research Center for Marine Ecology, The First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061, China; College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China.
4
Research Center for Marine Ecology, The First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061, China; College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China.

Abstract

In recent years, related research has mainly examined lipophilic marine toxins (LMTs) in contaminated bivalves or toxic algae, whereas the levels of LMTs in seawater remain largely unexplored. Okadaic acid (OA), yessotoxin (YTX), and pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) are three typical LMTs produced by certain marine algae that are closely linked to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. In this study, a new method of solid phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography - electrospray ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry was developed to determine the presence of OA, YTX, and PTX2 in seawater simultaneously. Satisfactory sensitivity, repeatability (RSD<25.00%) and recovery (56.25-70.18%) of the method were achieved. Then, the method was applied to determine the amounts of the three toxins in the coastal seawater. OA and PTX2 were detected in all the seawater samples collected from eight locations along the coastline of Qingdao City, China on October 23, 2012, with concentration ranges of OA 4.24-9.64ngL(-1) and PTX2 0.42-0.74ngL(-1). Monthly concentrations of OA and PTX2 in the seawater of four locations were determined over the course of a year, with concentration ranges of OA 1.41-89.52ngL(-1) and PTX2 below detectable limit to 1.70ngL(-1). The peak values of OA and PTX2 in coastal seawater were observed in August and July, respectively. Our results suggest that follow-up research on the fate modeling and risk assessment of LMTs in coastal seawater should be implemented.

KEYWORDS:

HPLC–MS/MS; Okadaic acid; Pectenotoxin-2; SPE; Seawater analysis; Yessotoxin

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