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Surg Radiol Anat. 2015 Mar;37(2):175-80. doi: 10.1007/s00276-014-1337-z. Epub 2014 Jul 5.

Anatomical study of medial zygomaticotemporal vein and its clinical implication regarding the injectable treatments.

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Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan, Korea.



The medial zygomaticotemporal vein (MZTV), clinically known as sentinel vein, has been observed in the vicinity of the temporal branch of the facial nerve during endoscopic procedures aiming to lift the upper face. The aim of the present study was to describe the topography of the MZTV with reference to the superficial landmarks for providing detailed anatomical information during injectable treatment procedures.


Eighteen hemifaces were harvested from nine embalmed Korean adult cadavers (5 males and 4 females, mean age 76 years). The piercing location, vascular diameter, drainage pattern of the MZTV, and its relationship with the orbicularis oculi muscle (OOc) were recorded photographically, and using diagrams and written notes.


The piercing point of the MZTV was located 26.8 ± 5.9 mm from the lateral epicanthus, 18.8 ± 6.9 mm lateral to the plane (HP) through the tragus and the lateral epicanthus, and 19.0 ± 5.4 mm superior to the plane (VP) through the lateral epicanthus point and perpendicular to the HP. The diameter of the MZTV at the piercing point was 1.9 ± 0.8 mm. All of the MZTV ultimately connected with the middle temporal vein (MTV). In particular, the MZTV was connected the MTV by anastomosing with the periorbital vein. Anastomosis of the MZTV and a well-developed periorbital vein was found in 27.8 % of cases.


The physician must determine the location of the MZTV and should be able to accurately estimate its connection with significant veins at the temple to reduce the risk of severe complications during injectable treatments.

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