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Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 Oct;95(10):1977-83. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2014.06.011. Epub 2014 Jul 1.

Risk of headache, temporomandibular dysfunction, and local sensitization in male professional boxers: a case-control study.

Author information

1
University Center of Health Sciences San Rafael-Nebrija, University Antonio de Nebrija, Madrid, Spain.
2
Faculty of Nursing, Physiotherapy and Podiatry, Department of Physical Therapy, University of Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain. Electronic address: angeloliva@us.es.
3
Faculty of Nursing, Physiotherapy and Podiatry, Department of Physical Therapy, University of Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain.
4
Faculty of Odontology, Department of Stomatology, University of Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain.
5
Department of Anatomy and Human Embryology, School of Physical Education and Sports Medicine, University of Cádiz, Cádiz, Spain.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate differences in the incidence of headache, trigeminal nerve mechanosensitivity, and temporomandibular functionality in professional male boxers (exposed to repetitive craniofacial trauma) who were actively training and without severe previous injuries compared with handball players.

DESIGN:

Case-control study.

SETTING:

University-based physical therapy research clinic.

PARTICIPANTS:

Eighteen boxers (mean age, 23±4.61y) as the cases group, and 20 handball players as the comparison group (mean age, ±2y, and sex matched), were included. All participants (N=38) completed the assessment protocol.

INTERVENTIONS:

Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Measurements were taken of the headache impact (Headache Impact Test-6) and the pressure pain threshold over the trigeminal nerve sensory branches, the masseter muscle, and the tibialis anterior muscle. The secondary outcome measure included the temporomandibular function (Helkimo Clinic Index).

RESULTS:

The boxers showed slight mandibular function impairment, local muscular and neural sensitization, and a higher impact from headaches than did the handball players. The between-group comparison found significant differences in all outcome measures (P<.05), except in the tibialis anterior muscle pressure pain threshold on the dominant (P=.958) and the nondominant (P=.453) sides.

CONCLUSIONS:

Professional male boxers seem to suffer a greater headache impact and local sensitization of the craniomandibular region than do professional handball players. It cannot be determined whether these findings are short-lasting, as a result of the training activity, or long-lasting.

KEYWORDS:

Boxing; Case-control studies; Central nervous system sensitization; Headache; Rehabilitation; Sports

PMID:
24996064
DOI:
10.1016/j.apmr.2014.06.011
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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