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Reprod Toxicol. 2014 Nov;49:27-32. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2014.06.007. Epub 2014 Jun 30.

Increased urinary cobalt and whole blood concentrations of cadmium and lead in women with uterine leiomyomata: Findings from the ENDO Study.

Author information

1
Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Utah, 50 North 1900 East, Ste. 2B200, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, United States. Electronic address: erica.johnstone@hsc.utah.edu.
2
Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Health, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852, United States.
3
Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and the Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The University at Albany, New York 12201, United States.
4
Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Utah, 50 North 1900 East, Ste. 2B200, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, United States.

Abstract

Multiple trace elements have estrogen receptor activity, but the association of these elements with uterine leiomyoma has not been defined. A cohort of 473 women aged 18-44 undergoing surgery for benign gynecologic indications provided whole blood and urine specimens for trace element analysis, which was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Twenty elements were analyzed in blood and 3 in urine. The surgeon documented whether fibroids were present. Geometric mean concentrations were compared between women with and without fibroids, and logistic regression models were generated to assess the impact of the concentration of each trace element on the odds of fibroids. In multivariate regressions, odds of a fibroid diagnosis were higher with increased whole blood cadmium (AOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.02, 2.04) and lead (AOR 1.31 95% CI 1.02, 1.69), and urine cobalt (AOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02, 1.70). Urinary cadmium and lead were not related to fibroid diagnosis. Increased exposure to trace elements may contribute to fibroid growth, and fibroids may serve as a reservoir for these elements. Differences between urinary and whole blood findings merit further investigation, as urinary cadmium has been considered a superior marker of exposure.

KEYWORDS:

Cadmium; Fibroids; Lead; Leiomyoma; Mercury; Metals; Toxic exposures; Trace elements

PMID:
24994689
PMCID:
PMC4280339
DOI:
10.1016/j.reprotox.2014.06.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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