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NeuroRehabilitation. 2014;35(1):67-76. doi: 10.3233/NRE-141103.

Behavioral scales used in severe and moderate traumatic brain injury.

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Brain Injury Unit, Guttmann Institute, Rehabilitation Hospital, University Institute Affiliated with the Autonomous University of Barcelona, Badalona, Spain.
Parc de Salut Mar, Barcelona, Spain.
Brain Injury Unit, Hospital Aita Menni, Bilbao, Spain.


Neurobehavioral disorders are common consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that should be objectively assessed in this population. The use of scales allows us to unify terms both in clinical practice and investigative work; it also constitutes a useful guide in clinical interviews and makes it possible to see outcome changes in patients with or without intervention. The aim of this study is to review the most frequently neurobehavioral scales used to measure the non-cognitive disorders of conduct in TBI patients.


A systematic and descriptive literature review was done in Medline, without time limit, which focused on scales applied to behavioral disorders in moderate and severe TBI patients.


Ninety articles were selected for the final review and thirty-seven different scales were identified. Seven of these instruments represent sixty-five percent of all behavioral scales applied in the studies collected and were selected for the present review. There are scales that are more general and include a wide range of neurobehavioral symptoms, like the Neurobehavioral Rating Scale and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. On the opposite, there are questionnaires that focus on specific symptoms like aggressiveness, agitation and apathy such as the Agitated Behavior Scale or the Apathy Evaluation Scale. The forms for caregiver or staff were the most prevalent in our review. The most representative behavioral scales applied to moderate and severe TBI patients were analyzed using clinical useful, covered domains, item descriptions, administration procedures and psychometric properties.


Brain injury; assessment; disability; emotional; instruments; measure; neurobehavioral; neurorehabilitation; outcome; scales

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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