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Adv Exp Med Biol. 1977 May 22-24;92:489-516.

Cyclic nucleotide metabolism in solid tumor tissues.


The examination of the regulation of the system of 3'-5' cyclic nucleotide monophosphates has only begun in cancer tissues. In human cancers, these studies are notably non-existent. However, in animal cancers, especially the Morris hepatomas, enough data has been gathered that, while risky, certain trends seem to begin to appear. Cyclic AMP is constant or lowered, while cyclic GMP is elevated in the fast growing hepatomas. Regulation of adenylate cyclase by protein hormones is reduced, while regulation by epinephrine may be increased. Binding of glucagon is decreased in the fast growing hepatomas. Guanylate cyclase, while being predominantly cytoplasmic in the normal liver, is predominantly membrane bound in the tumors. The liver enzyme is also readily stimulated by several chemical carcinogens. The cyclic GMP phosphodiesterases are decreased in these tumors; while the cAMP phosphodiesterases are increased. Although the cyclic nucleotide dependent protein kinases (histone as substrate) are altered in the hepatomas, observations of unique cyclic nucleotide binding proteins or cAMP independent protein kinases in cancer tissues may be of even greater significance for the development of or the maintenance of the neoplastic state of cells.

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