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J Orthod Sci. 2012 Oct;1(4):92-7. doi: 10.4103/2278-0203.105877.

Soft-tissue cephalometric norms in a north Indian ethnic population.

Author information

1
Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.
2
Department of Oral Medicine & Radiology, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Soft tissues play the primary role of physical appearance and facial esthetics. This study aimed to establish soft-tissue cephalometric standards in North Indian adults, which can be used in diagnosis, treatment planning, and stability of orthodontic outcome and orthognathic patients.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

A group of 60 individuals (30 males and 30 females) with normal occlusion and proportional facial profile were chosen. For the entire chosen sample, lateral cephalograms were obtained. Standard values of 11 soft-tissue measurements were determined.

RESULTS:

Soft-tissue measurements showed that men had greater soft-tissue facial angle (92.10°) than women (89.92°). Also, they had more nose prominence (18.10 mm) than women (16.44 mm). Skeletal profile convexity (A to N-pog) of men (0.40 mm) was less than women (1.76 mm). Basic upper lip thickness was higher in men (16.60 mm) compared to women (14.24 mm), while H-angle was higher in women (16.68°) as compared to men (14.30°). In the lower face area, inferior sulcus to the H line distance was more in men (7.30 mm) than women (4.80 mm). Men had greater soft-tissue chin thickness (14.10 mm) than women (12.84 mm).

CONCLUSION:

The differences in soft-tissue cephalometric norms between men and women of North Indian faces were established, so the orthodontist or surgeon must individualize treatment planning, using local norms as the reference.

KEYWORDS:

Cephalometry; soft tissue; standard values

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