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Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Aug;25(8):425-34. doi: 10.1016/j.tem.2014.05.001. Epub 2014 Jun 28.

The pancreatic β cell: recent insights from human genetics.

Author information

1
Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Headington, OX3 7LE, UK.
2
Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Headington, OX3 7LE, UK; Oxford National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre, Churchill Hospital, Headington, OX3 7LE, UK. Electronic address: anna.gloyn@drl.ox.ac.uk.

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterised by relative or absolute pancreatic β cell dysfunction. Genetic variants implicated in disease risk can be identified by studying affected individuals. To understand the mechanisms driving genetic associations, variants must be translated through causative transcripts to biological insights. Studies into the genetic basis of Mendelian forms of diabetes have successfully identified genes involved in both β cell function and pancreatic development. For type 2 diabetes (T2D), genome-wide association studies (GWASs) are uncovering an ever-increasing number of susceptibility variants that exert their effect through β cell dysfunction, but translation to mechanistic understanding has in most cases been slow. Improved annotations of the islet genome and advances in whole-genome and -exome sequencing (WHS and WES) have facilitated recent progress.

KEYWORDS:

GWAS; diabetes; human genetics; pancreatic β cell

PMID:
24986330
PMCID:
PMC4229643
DOI:
10.1016/j.tem.2014.05.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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