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Prev Vet Med. 2014 Sep 1;116(1-2):26-36. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2014.06.004. Epub 2014 Jun 17.

Economic impact of foot and mouth disease outbreaks on smallholder farmers in Ethiopia.

Author information

1
Business Economics Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen, The Netherlands; Department of Veterinary Epidemiology and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Gondar, P.O. Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia. Electronic address: wudu.jemberu@wur.nl.
2
Business Economics Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen, The Netherlands.
3
Department of Economics, College of Business and Economics, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Abstract

Foot and mouth disease is endemic in Ethiopia with occurrences of several outbreaks every year. Quantitative information about the impact of the disease on smallholder farming systems in the country is, however, scarce. This study presents a quantitative assessment of the clinical and direct economic impacts of foot and mouth disease outbreaks on household level in smallholder livestock farming systems. Impacts were assessed based on data obtained from case outbreaks in cattle in crop-livestock mixed and pastoral smallholder farming systems that occurred in 2012 and 2013. Data were collected by using questionnaires administered to 512 smallholder farmers in six districts within two administrate zones that represent the two smallholder farming systems. Foot and mouth disease morbidity rates of 85.2% and 94.9% at herd level; and 74.3% and 60.8% at animal level in the affected herds were determined for crop-livestock mixed system and pastoral system, respectively. The overall and calf specific mortality rates were 2.4% and 9.7% for the crop-livestock mixed system, and 0.7% and 2.6% for the pastoral system, respectively. Herd level morbidity rate was statistically significantly higher in the pastoral system than in the crop-livestock mixed system (P<0.001). The economic losses of foot and mouth disease outbreak due to milk loss, draft power loss and mortality were on average USD 76 per affected herd and USD 9.8 per head of cattle in the affected herds in crop-livestock mixed system; and USD 174 per affected herd and USD 5.3 per head of cattle in the affected herds in the pastoral system. The herd level economic losses were statistically significantly higher for the pastoral system than for the crop-livestock mixed system (P<0.001). The major loss due to the disease occurred as a result of milk losses and draft power losses whereas mortality losses were relatively low. Although the presented estimates on the economic losses accounted only for the visible direct impacts of the disease on herd level, these conservative estimates signify a potential socioeconomic gain from a control intervention.

KEYWORDS:

Cattle; Economic; Ethiopia; Foot and mouth disease; Morbidity; Smallholder farming system

PMID:
24985154
DOI:
10.1016/j.prevetmed.2014.06.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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