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Nutrition. 2014 Jul-Aug;30(7-8 Suppl):S52-8. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2014.02.022. Epub 2014 Mar 12.

Polyphenol-rich Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce improves glucose metabolism and liver lipid accumulation in diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice.

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Department of Plant Biology and Pathology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA. Electronic address:
Department of Plant Biology and Pathology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA.
Department of Biostatistics, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.



The aims of the following experiments were to characterize antidiabetic in vitro and in vivo activity of the polyphenol-rich aqueous extract of Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce (RSL).


RSL extract (RSLE) and isolated compounds were evaluated for inhibitory effects on glucose production as well as tumor necrosis factor alpha-dependent inhibition of insulin activity in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. Additionally, high-fat diet-induced obese mice were treated with RSLE (100 or 300 mg/kg), metformin (250 mg/kg), or vehicle (water) for 28 d by oral administration and insulin and oral glucose tolerance tests were conducted. Tissues were harvested at the end of the study and evaluated for biochemical and physiological improvements in metabolic syndrome conditions.


A polyphenol-rich RSLE, containing chlorogenic acid, cyanidin malonyl-glucoside, and quercetin malonyl-glucoside, was produced by simple boiling water extraction at pH 2.0. In vitro, RSLE and chlorogenic acid demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of glucose production. In vivo, RSLE treatment improved glucose metabolism measured by oral glucose tolerance tests, but not insulin tolerance tests. RSLE treated groups had a lower ratio of liver weight to body weight as well as decreased total liver lipids compared with the control group after 28 d of treatment. No significant differences in plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, and triglycerides were observed with RSLE-treated groups compared with vehicle control.


RSLE demonstrated antidiabetic effects in vitro and in vivo and may improve metabolic syndrome conditions of fatty liver and glucose metabolism.


Anthocyanins; Chlorogenic acid; Flavonols; Metabolic syndrome; Red lettuce

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