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J Biol Chem. 1989 Jun 5;264(16):9126-8.

Synergistic phosphorylation of rabbit muscle glycogen synthase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and casein kinase I. Implications for hormonal regulation of glycogen synthase.

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Department of Biochemistry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis 46223.


The phosphorylation of rabbit skeletal muscle glycogen synthase by casein kinase I is markedly enhanced if the enzyme has previously been phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. The presence of phosphate in the primary cAMP-dependent protein kinase sites, sites 1a, 1b, and 2 (serine 7), increases the activity of casein kinase I toward residues in the vicinity of these sites. This synergistic phosphorylation correlates with potent inactivation of the glycogen synthase. Analysis of the NH2 terminus of the enzyme subunit indicated that phosphorylation at serine 7 caused serine 10 to become a preferred casein kinase I site and that phosphoserine can be an important recognition determinant for casein kinase I. This finding can also explain how epinephrine stimulation of skeletal muscle provokes significant increases in the phosphorylation state of serine residues, in particular serine 10, not recognized by cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

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