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J Anim Sci. 2014 Aug;92(8):3624-35. doi: 10.2527/jas.2013-7436. Epub 2014 Jun 30.

The effects of sodium sulfate in the water of nursery pigs and the efficacy of nonnutritive feed additives to mitigate those effects.

Author information

1
Department of Animal Sciences and Industry, Kansas State University, Manhattan 66506.
2
Department of Animal Sciences and Industry, Kansas State University, Manhattan 66506 goodband@ksu.edu.

Abstract

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of sodium sulfate water and the efficacy of nonnutritive feed additives in nursery pig diets. In Exp. 1, 320 barrows (5.4 ± 0.1 kg BW and 21 d of age) were allotted to 1 of 8 treatments for 24 d in a 2 × 4 factorial with 2 levels of sodium sulfate water (control or 3,000 mg sodium sulfate/L added), and 4 dietary zeolite (clinoptilolite) levels (0, 0.25, 0.50, or 1%). Fecal samples were collected on d 5, 9, 16, and 23; visually scored for consistency (1 = firm and 5 = watery); and analyzed for DM. No interactions of sodium sulfate × zeolite were observed for any response criteria. Overall (d 0 to 24), pigs drinking sodium sulfate water had decreased (P < 0.01) ADG, ADFI, and G:F compared with pigs drinking control water. Pigs drinking sodium sulfate water also had increased (P < 0.01) fecal scores and lower (P < 0.04) fecal DM on d 5, 9, and 16 compared with pigs drinking control water. Increasing dietary zeolite increased (linear; P < 0.05) ADG and ADFI but had no effect on G:F. In Exp. 2, 350 barrows (5.7 ± 0.1 kg BW and 21 d of age) were allotted to 1 of 10 treatments in a 2 × 5 factorial for 21 d with 2 levels of sodium sulfate water (control or 2,000 mg sodium sulfate/L added) and 5 dietary treatments (control, 1 or 2% zeolite, 1% humic acid substance [HA], and 1% humic and fulvic acid substance [HFB]). Fecal samples were collected on d 5, 8, 15, and 21; visually scored for consistency (1 = firm and 5 = watery); and analyzed for DM. Overall (d 0 to 21), a water source × diet interaction was observed for ADG and G:F because pigs fed the 1% HA had decreased (P < 0.01) ADG and G:F when drinking sodium sulfate water compared with other treatments but increased ADG and G:F when drinking control water. Pigs drinking sodium sulfate water had decreased (P < 0.01) ADG and G:F and tended (P < 0.08) to have decreased ADFI compared with pigs drinking control water. Pigs drinking sodium sulfate water had increased (P < 0.01) fecal scores and decreased (P < 0.01) fecal DM on d 5 and 8. In conclusion, water high in sodium sulfate concentrations decreased growth performance and increased fecal moisture in newly weaned pigs. Although zeolite improved growth performance in the first experiment, it did not influence growth in the second study. The nonnutritive feed additives used in both experiments were unsuccessful in ameliorating the increased osmotic diarrhea observed from high sodium sulfate water.

KEYWORDS:

nursery pigs; sodium sulfate; water; zeolite

PMID:
24981569
DOI:
10.2527/jas.2013-7436
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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