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PLoS One. 2014 Jun 30;9(6):e101103. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101103. eCollection 2014.

Geographic variation of overweight and obesity among women in Nigeria: a case for nutritional transition in sub-Saharan Africa.

Author information

1
Division of Health Sciences, University of Warwick Medical School, Coventry, United Kingdom; Epidemiology and Biostatistics Division, School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; University of Oxford, KEMRI-University of Oxford-Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, Nairobi, Kenya.
2
Division of Health Sciences, University of Warwick Medical School, Coventry, United Kingdom.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Nutritional research in sub-Saharan Africa has primarily focused on under-nutrition. However, there is evidence of an ongoing nutritional transition in these settings. This study aimed to examine the geographic variation of overweight and obesity prevalence at the state-level among women in Nigeria, while accounting for individual-level risk factors.

METHODS:

The analysis was based on the 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), including 27,967 women aged 15-49 years. Individual data were collected on socio-demographics, but were aggregated to the country's states. We used a Bayesian geo-additive mixed model to map the geographic distribution of overweight and obesity at the state-level, accounting for individual-level risk factors.

RESULTS:

The overall prevalence of combined overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25) was 20.9%. In multivariate Bayesian geo-additive models, higher education [odds ratio (OR) & 95% Credible Region (CR): 1.68 (1.38, 2.00)], higher wealth index [3.45 (2.98, 4.05)], living in urban settings [1.24 (1.14, 1.36)] and increasing age were all significantly associated with a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity. There was also a striking variation in overweight/obesity prevalence across ethnic groups and state of residence, the highest being in Cross River State, in south-eastern Nigeria [2.32 (1.62, 3.40)], the lowest in Osun State in south-western Nigeria [0.48 (0.36, 0.61)].

CONCLUSIONS:

This study suggests distinct geographic patterns in the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity among Nigerian women, as well as the role of demographic, socio-economic and environmental factors in the ongoing nutritional transition in these settings.

PMID:
24979753
PMCID:
PMC4076212
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0101103
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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