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Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2015 Mar;32(3):147-51. doi: 10.1097/EJA.0000000000000107.

Postoperative delirium is an independent risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder in the elderly patient: a prospective observational study.

Author information

1
From the Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgical Intensive Care Medicine, Campus-Virchow-Klinikum and Campus Charité Mitte, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany *Both Tanja Drews and Martin Franck contributed equally.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may appear after hospitalisation for surgery with general anaesthesia in elderly patients. Prevalence and risk factors in this setting are unknown. Postoperative delirium could be a risk factor.

OBJECTIVE:

The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of, and risk factors for, PTSD 3 months after surgery with general anaesthesia in elderly patients.

DESIGN:

A prospective, clinical observational study.

SETTING:

This study was carried out between March 2009 and May 2010 in a German university hospital in Berlin and was part of a larger study focusing on depth of anaesthesia.

PATIENTS:

INCLUSION CRITERIA:

at least 60 years of age; noncardiac surgery with general anaesthesia.

EXCLUSION CRITERIA:

impaired preoperative cognitive function [mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score <24]; expected surgery time less than 1 h; nonproficiency in the German language.

INTERVENTIONS:

None.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Screening for PTSD 3 months after surgery using the screening instrument Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome 14-Questions Inventory Score (PTSS-14). The following risk factors for PTSD 3 months after surgery were tested: age; American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status; sex; duration of anaesthesia; postoperative delirium; PTSS-14 score 7 days after surgery; postoperative vomiting and nausea; postoperative pain; and preoperative depression.

STATISTICS:

Univariate statistical analysis was performed with Fisher's exact test and Spearman correlation. A backward logistic regression was performed.

RESULTS:

A total of 559 out of 1277 patients were included. Sixty-six patients (12%) were identified with PTSD 3 months after surgery. Seventy-seven patients (14%) were identified with postoperative delirium. Independent associated factors in the backward logistic regression were postoperative delirium (risk factor) and preoperative depression (protective factor).

CONCLUSION:

The prevalence of PTSD 3 months after surgery in elderly patients was high using the screening instrument PTSS-14. Postoperative delirium is a risk factor for PTSD 3 months after surgery.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ISRCTN Register: 36437985. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN36437985/

PMID:
24979586
DOI:
10.1097/EJA.0000000000000107
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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