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Ann Intern Med. 2014 Jul 1;161(1):11-9. doi: 10.7326/M13-2471.

Daily oral tenofovir and emtricitabine-tenofovir preexposure prophylaxis reduces herpes simplex virus type 2 acquisition among heterosexual HIV-1-uninfected men and women: a subgroup analysis of a randomized trial.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Daily oral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using the antiretroviral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) alone or in combination with emtricitabine (FTC-TDF) reduces the risk for HIV-1 acquisition. Tenofovir has in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2).

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the efficacy of daily oral PrEP with tenofovir and FTC-TDF in the prevention of HSV-2 acquisition.

DESIGN:

Subgroup analysis of data from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial with concealed allocation. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00557245).

SETTING:

Multiple sites in Kenya and Uganda.

PARTICIPANTS:

Heterosexual men and women who were seronegative for HIV-1 and HSV-2 and at high risk for HIV-1 acquisition due to having an HIV-1-infected partner.

INTERVENTION:

Once-daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), alone or combined with emtricitabine (FTC-TDF), compared with placebo.

MEASUREMENTS:

HSV-2 seroconversion.

RESULTS:

A total of 131 participants seroconverted to HSV-2 (79 of 1041 assigned to tenofovir or FTC-TDF PrEP [HSV-2 incidence, 5.6 per 100 person-years] and 52 of 481 assigned to placebo [HSV-2 incidence, 7.7 per 100 person-years]). The hazard ratio (HR) for HSV-2 acquisition with daily oral PrEP was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.49 to 0.99; P = 0.047) compared with placebo, and the absolute risk reduction was 2.1 per 100 person-years. Among the 1044 participants with HSV-2-infected partners, the HR for PrEP was 0.67 (CI, 0.46 to 0.98; P = 0.038) compared with placebo, and the absolute risk reduction was 3.1 per 100 person-years.

LIMITATION:

Randomization was not stratified by HSV-2 status, and diagnostic tests to exclude participants with acute HSV-2 at baseline are not available.

CONCLUSION:

Daily oral tenofovir-based PrEP significantly reduced the risk for HSV-2 acquisition among heterosexual men and women. Modest protection against HSV-2 is an added benefit of HIV-1 prevention with oral tenofovir-based PrEP.

PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE:

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

PMID:
24979446
DOI:
10.7326/M13-2471
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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