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Gene. 2014 Sep 1;547(2):245-56. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2014.06.046. Epub 2014 Jun 27.

A phenylalanine ammonia-lyase ortholog (PkPAL1) from Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex. Benth: molecular cloning, promoter analysis and response to biotic and abiotic elicitors.

Author information

1
Plant Biotechnology Division, CSIR - Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu Tawi-180001, India.
2
Genetic Resources and Agrotechnology Division, CSIR - Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu Tawi, 180001, India.
3
Microbial Biotechnology Division, CSIR - Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Sanat Nagar, Srinagar 190005, India.
4
Medicinal Chemistry Division, CSIR - Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu Tawi, 180001, India.
5
Plant Biotechnology Division, CSIR - Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu Tawi-180001, India. Electronic address: sklattoo@iiim.ac.in.

Abstract

Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. is a highly reputed medicinal herb utilised in the preparation of a number of herbal drug formulations, principally due to the presence of novel monoterpene iridoid glycosides kenned as picrosides. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase catalyses an important rate-limiting step in phenylpropanoid pathway and supplies precursors like cinnamic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, etc., to a variety of secondary metabolites including picrosides. The imperilled status of P. kurrooa coupled with lack of information regarding biogenesis of picrosides necessitates deciphering the biosynthetic pathway for picrosides. In the present study, a PAL gene, designated PkPAL1 was isolated from P. kurrooa. The cDNA is 2312 bp in length, consisting of an ORF of 2142 bp encoding for a 713 amino acid protein having a predicted molecular weight of 77.66 kDa and an isoelectric point of pH 6.82. qRT-PCR analysis of various tissues of P. kurrooa showed that PkPAL1 transcript levels were highest in the leaves, consistent with picroside accumulation pattern. Using Genome walking, a 718 bp promoter region was also isolated resulting in identification of distinct cis-regulatory elements including TGA-element, TGACG-motif, CGTCA-motif, etc. qRT-PCR indicated up-regulation of PkPAL1 by methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, 2,4-dicholorophenoxy acetic acid and UV-B elicitations that corroborated positively with the identified cis-elements within the promoter region. Moreover, altitude was found to have a positive effect on the PkPAL1 transcript levels, driving the expression of PkPAL1 abundantly. Based on docking analysis, we identified eight residues as potentially essential for substrate binding in PkPAL1.

KEYWORDS:

Elicitors; Iridoids; Molecular docking; Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; Picrorhiza kurrooa; Picrosides

PMID:
24979341
DOI:
10.1016/j.gene.2014.06.046
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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