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J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2014 Jun 1;31(6):1206-14. doi: 10.1364/JOSAA.31.001206.

Fast nonparaxial scalar focal field calculations.


An efficient algorithm for calculating nonparaxial scalar field distributions in the focal region of a lens is discussed. The algorithm is based on fast Fourier transform implementations of the first Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral and assumes that the input field at the pupil plane has a larger extent than the field in the focal region. A sampling grid is defined over a finite region in the output plane and referred to as a tile. The input field is divided into multiple separate spatial regions of the size of the output tile. Finally, the input tiles are added coherently to form a summed tile, which is propagated to the output plane. Since only a single tile is propagated, there are significant reductions of computational load and memory requirements. This method is combined either with a subpixel sampling technique or with a chirp z-transform to realize smaller sampling intervals in the output plane than in the input plane. For a given example the resulting methods enable a speedup of approximately 800× in comparison to the normal angular spectrum method, while the memory requirements are reduced by more than 99%.

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