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Nutrition. 2014 Sep;30(9):1022-7. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2014.02.018. Epub 2014 Mar 12.

Nut consumption and 5-y all-cause mortality in a Mediterranean cohort: the SUN project.

Author information

1
Department of Occupational Medicine, University of Navarra Clinic, Pamplona, Spain. Electronic address: afmontero@unav.es.
2
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
3
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
4
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; The Human Nutrition Department, Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, Institut d'Investigació Sanitaria Pere i Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain.
5
Pediatrics Service, Complejo Hospital de Navarra B, Servicio Navarro de Salud, Pamplona, Spain.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to assess the association between nut consumption and all-cause mortality after 5-y follow-up in a Spanish cohort.

METHODS:

The SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra, University of Navarra Follow-up) project is a prospective cohort study, formed by Spanish university graduates. Information is gathered by mailed questionnaires collected biennially. In all, 17 184 participants were followed for up to 5 y. Baseline nut consumption was collected by self-reported data, using a validated 136-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Information on mortality was collected by permanent contact with the SUN participants and their families, postal authorities, and the National Death Index. The association between baseline nut consumption and all-cause mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models to adjust for potential confounding. Baseline nut consumption was categorized in two ways. In a first analysis energy-adjusted quintiles of nut consumption (measured in g/d) were used. To adjust for total energy intake the residuals method was used. In a second analysis, participants were categorized into four groups according to pre-established categories of nut consumption (servings/d or servings/wk). Both analyses were adjusted for potential confounding factors.

RESULTS:

Participants who consumed nuts ≥2/wk had a 56% lower risk for all-cause mortality than those who never or almost never consumed nuts (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence intervals, 0.23-0.86).

CONCLUSION:

Nut consumption was significantly associated with a reduced risk for all-cause mortality after the first 5 y of follow-up in the SUN project.

KEYWORDS:

Nut consumption; SUN project; Total mortality

PMID:
24976427
DOI:
10.1016/j.nut.2014.02.018
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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