Send to

Choose Destination
J Hazard Mater. 2014 Aug 15;278:236-49. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.05.096. Epub 2014 Jun 6.

Effects of CEES and LPS synergistically stimulate oxidative stress inactivates OGG1 signaling in macrophage cells.

Author information

School of Biotechnology, KIIT University, Campus 11, Bhubaneswar 751024, India.
School of Biotechnology, KIIT University, Campus 11, Bhubaneswar 751024, India. Electronic address:


2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES), a monofunctional analogue of sulfur mustard, is a strong vesicant and an alkylating chemical warfare agent. We studied the molecular mechanism of oxidative stress triggered signaling cascades in murine macrophages exposed to CEES with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exposure of CEES with specific dose of LPS stimulates oxidative stress caused increasing level of intracellular ROS and RNS, decreased antioxidant enzymes, increasing bimolecular damage, reduced cell viability, and cell cycle arrest. Synergistic exposure of CEES and LPS provoked significant increase in phosphorylation of MAPKs, Akt, tuberin, that down regulate OGG1 expression and 8-OHdG accumulations. Treatment with Akt and ERK1/2 inhibitors, the cells with constitutively active inhibiting activity of Akt and ERK1/2MAPK significant reduce CEES and LPS challenge tuberin but not the OGG1. In addition, the N-acetylcysteine inhibited ROS/RNS generation, elevation of antioxidants level, expression of ERK1/2, Akt, tuberin phosphorylation, resulted in deceased 8-OHdG accumulation and upregulation of OGG1 protein expression suggesting no involvement of Akt and ERK1/2MAPK pathways after CEES and LPS challenge. Collectively, our results indicate that exposure of CEES and LPS induces oxidative stress and the activation of tuberin, and 8-OHdG accumulation via upstream signaling pathways including Akt and ERK1/2MAPK pathway in macrophages but not the down regulation of OGG1.


8-OHdG; CEES; LPS; OGG1; Oxidative stress; Signaling

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center