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J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2015 Apr;103(3):641-8. doi: 10.1002/jbm.b.33210. Epub 2014 Jun 28.

The effect of APH treatment on surface bonding and osseointegration of Ti-6Al-7Nb implants: an in vitro and in vivo study.

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Department of Dental Biomaterials and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Brain Korea 21 Plus Project, School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, 561-756, South Korea.


This study investigated the effects of anodization-cyclic precalcification-heat (APH) treatment on the bonding ability of Ca-P coating to the parent metal and osseointegration of Ti-6Al-7Nb implants. Eighteen Ti-6Al-7Nb discs, 9 untreated and 9 APH-treated, were cultured with osteoblast cells in vitro, and the cellular differentiation ability was assayed at 1, 2, and 3 weeks. For in vivo testing, 28 Ti-6Al-7Nb implants (14 implants of each group) were inserted to rat tibias, and after each 4 and 6 weeks of implantation, bone bonding, and osseointegration were evaluated through removal torque and histological analysis. Osteoblast-culturing showed twice as much of the alkaline phosphatase activity on the treated surface at 3 weeks than on the untreated surface (pā€‰<ā€‰0.05). The treated implants exhibited higher removal torque values than the untreated ones (15.5 vs. 1.8 Ncm at 4 weeks and 19.7 vs. 2.6 Ncm at 6 weeks, pā€‰<ā€‰0.05). Moreover, the excellent bonding quality of coats was confirmed by the existence of cohesive fractures on the surface of removed APH implants (field emission scanning electron microscopy and histological observation). Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that the APH treatment significantly enhanced osseointegration of the Ti-6Al-7Nb implant, with the stable bonding between the coating and the implant surface.


Ca-P coating; Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy; TiO2 nanotubes; delamination; osseointegration

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