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Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2014 Jul;23(3):427-64. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2014.03.001.

Quantitative EEG and neurofeedback in children and adolescents: anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, comorbid addiction and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and brain injury.

Author information

Committee on Integrative Medicine, American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Attention, Memory and Cognition Center, 4641 Gulfstarr Drive, Suite 106, Destin, FL 32541, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Emory University Medical School, Atlanta, Georgia. Electronic address:
Neuroimaging Laboratory, Applied Neuroscience Research Institute, 7985 113th Street, Suite 210, Seminole, FL 33772, USA.
University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA; Southeastern Neurofeedback Institute, Inc, 111 North Pompano Beach Boulevard, Suite 1214, Pompano Beach, FL 33062, USA; International Society for Neurofeedback and Research.

Erratum in

  • Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2015 Jan;24(1):197.


This article explores the science surrounding neurofeedback. Both surface neurofeedback (using 2-4 electrodes) and newer interventions, such as real-time z-score neurofeedback (electroencephalogram [EEG] biofeedback) and low-resolution electromagnetic tomography neurofeedback, are reviewed. The limited literature on neurofeedback research in children and adolescents is discussed regarding treatment of anxiety, mood, addiction (with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder), and traumatic brain injury. Future potential applications, the use of quantitative EEG for determining which patients will be responsive to medications, the role of randomized controlled studies in neurofeedback research, and sensible clinical guidelines are considered.


ADHD; Addiction; Anxiety disorders; Brain injury in children and adolescents; Depression; LORETA; Neurofeedback; Quantitative EEG

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