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Mol Biol Evol. 2014 Sep;31(9):2457-71. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msu204. Epub 2014 Jun 28.

The coevolutionary period of Wolbachia pipientis infecting Drosophila ananassae and its impact on the evolution of the host germline stem cell regulating genes.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University jc2439@cornell.edu.
2
Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University.

Abstract

The endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia pipientis is known to infect a wide range of arthropod species yet less is known about the coevolutionary history it has with its hosts. Evidence of highly identical W. pipientis strains in evolutionary divergent hosts suggests horizontal transfer between hosts. For example, Drosophila ananassae is infected with a W. pipientis strain that is nearly identical in sequence to a strain that infects both D. simulans and D. suzukii, suggesting recent horizontal transfer among these three species. However, it is unknown whether the W. pipientis strain had recently invaded all three species or a more complex infectious dynamic underlies the horizontal transfers. Here, we have examined the coevolutionary history of D. ananassae and its resident W. pipientis to infer its period of infection. Phylogenetic analysis of D. ananassae mitochondrial DNA and W. pipientis DNA sequence diversity revealed the current W. pipientis infection is not recent. In addition, we examined the population genetics and molecular evolution of several germline stem cell (GSC) regulating genes of D. ananassae. These studies reveal significant evidence of recent and long-term positive selection at stonewall in D. ananassae, whereas pumillio showed patterns of variation consistent with only recent positive selection. Previous studies had found evidence for adaptive evolution of two key germline differentiation genes, bag of marbles (bam) and benign gonial cell neoplasm (bgcn), in D. melanogaster and D. simulans and proposed that the adaptive evolution at these two genes was driven by arms race between the host GSC and W. pipientis. However, we did not find any statistical departures from a neutral model of evolution for bam and bgcn in D. ananassae despite our new evidence that this species has been infected with W. pipientis for a period longer than the most recent infection in D. melanogaster. In the end, analyzing the GSC regulating genes individually showed two of the seven genes to have evidence of selection. However, combining the data set and fitting a specific population genetic model significant proportion of the nonsynonymous sites across the GSC regulating genes were driven to fixation by positive selection. Clearly the GSC system is under rapid evolution and potentially multiple drivers are causing the rapid evolution.

KEYWORDS:

Drosophila ananassae; Wolbachia pipientis; germline stem cell; positive selection

PMID:
24974378
PMCID:
PMC4137719
DOI:
10.1093/molbev/msu204
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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