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Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2014 Apr;28(2):315-30. doi: 10.1016/j.berh.2014.05.003.

Assessment and treatment of pain in children and adolescents.

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Medical Sciences Graduate Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, HSC-4N35, Canada. Electronic address:
Child Health Evaluative Sciences, The Hospital for Sick Children, Lawrence S. Bloomberg, Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, The Peter Gilgan Centre for Research and Learning, 686 Bay Street, Room 69715, Toronto, ON M5G 0A4, Canada. Electronic address:


Pain is one of the most common and distressing symptoms experienced by children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Pain is known to negatively affect all aspects of health-related quality of life, including physical, emotional, social, and role functioning. The valid and reliable assessment of pain is the first critical step to developing an effective plan for pain management. This chapter will address the following key questions: (1) What is the prevalence and impact of pain in children and adolescents with arthritis? (2) Why is it important for clinicians to assess the multidimensional nature of pain and what are the practical issues that should be considered? (3) What tools are available to help clinicians to assess pain? (4) How can Internet and mobile technologies be used to improve the assessment of pain? (5) What are the recommended strategies for clinically managing pain, including pharmacological, physical, and psychological approaches?


Adolescents; Assessment; Children; Management; Pain; Technology

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