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Prog Brain Res. 2014;211:165-82. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-63425-2.00007-6.

Imaging dopamine neurotransmission in live human brain.

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Neuroimaging and Molecular Imaging, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA. Electronic address:


Dopamine is an important regulator of cognition and behavior, but its precise influence on human brain processing remains unclear because of the lack of a reliable technique to study dopamine in the live human brain. In the recent years, a number of techniques have been developed to detect, map, and measure dopamine released during task performance. Most of these techniques are based on molecular imaging methods and have varying degrees of sensitivity. We developed a single-scan dynamic molecular imaging technique for the detection of dopamine released during task performance in the live human brain. This technique is extremely sensitive and has test-retest reliability. Using this technique, we detected dopamine released during the processing of a number of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional tasks. Since this technique acquires data that cannot be obtained using any other techniques, it extends the scope of neuroimaging research.


attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; behavior; cognition; dopamine; emotion; fallypride; molecular imaging; raclopride

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