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Toxicol Lett. 2014 Dec 1;231(2):161-8. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2014.06.028. Epub 2014 Jun 23.

Estimated daily intake and cumulative risk assessment of phthalate diesters in a Belgian general population.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Clinical, Forensic and Environmental Toxicology, University of Liege (ULg), CHU (B35), Liege 4000, Belgium; Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Medicines (C.I.R.M.), University of Liege (ULg), CHU (B35), Liege 4000, Belgium. Electronic address: lucas.dewalque@ulg.ac.be.
2
Laboratory of Clinical, Forensic and Environmental Toxicology, University of Liege (ULg), CHU (B35), Liege 4000, Belgium; Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Medicines (C.I.R.M.), University of Liege (ULg), CHU (B35), Liege 4000, Belgium. Electronic address: c.charlier@chu.ulg.ac.be.
3
Laboratory of Clinical, Forensic and Environmental Toxicology, University of Liege (ULg), CHU (B35), Liege 4000, Belgium; Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Medicines (C.I.R.M.), University of Liege (ULg), CHU (B35), Liege 4000, Belgium. Electronic address: c.pirard@chu.ulg.ac.be.

Abstract

The daily intakes (DI) were estimated in a Belgian general population for 5 phthalates, namely diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), based on the urinary measurements of their corresponding metabolites. DI values ranged between <LOD and 59.65 μg/kg bw/day depending on the congener, and were globally higher for children than adults. They were compared to acceptable levels of exposure (tolerable daily intakes) to evaluate the hazard quotients (HQ), which highlight an intake above the dose considered as safe for values greater than 1. If very few of our Belgian participants exceeded this threshold for phthalates considered individually, 6.2% of the adults and 25% of the children showed an excessive hazard index (HI) which took into account the cumulative risk of adverse anti-androgenic effects. These results are of concern since these HI were based on only 3 phthalates (DEHP, DiBP and DnBP), and showed a median of 0.55 and 0.29 for children and adults respectively. The comparison with previously determined dietary intakes demonstrated that for DEHP, food intake was nearly the only route of exposure while other pathways occurred mainly for the other studied phthalates.

KEYWORDS:

Belgium; Daily intake; Hazard index; Phthalate; Urine

PMID:
24968065
DOI:
10.1016/j.toxlet.2014.06.028
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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