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Thromb Haemost. 2014 Sep 2;112(3):478-85. doi: 10.1160/TH14-02-0149. Epub 2014 Jun 26.

Clinical and laboratory characteristics of paediatric and adolescent index cases with venous thromboembolism and antithrombin deficiency. An observational multicentre cohort study.

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Ulrike Nowak-Göttl, Center of Thrombosis & Hemostasis, Institute of Clinical Chemistry, Univ. Hospital Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Str. 3, Building 17, 24105 Kiel, Germany, E-mail:


Venous thromboembolism [TE] is a multifactorial disease and antithrombin deficiency [ATD] constitutes a major risk factor. In the present study the prevalence of ATD and the clinical presentation at TE onset in a cohort of paediatric index cases are reported. In 319 unselected paediatric patients (0.1-18 years) from 313 families, recruited between July 1996 and December 2013, a comprehensive thrombophilia screening was performed along with recording of anamnestic data. 21 of 319 paediatric patients (6.6%), corresponding to 16 of 313 families (5.1%), were AT-deficient with confirmed underlying AT gene mutations. Mean age at first TE onset was 14 years (range 0.1 to 17). Thrombotic locations were renal veins (n=2), cerebral veins (n=5), deep veins (DVT) of the leg (n=9), DVT & pulmonary embolism (n=4) and pelvic veins (n=1). ATD co-occurred with the factor-V-Leiden mutation in one and the prothrombin G20210A mutation in two children. In 57.2% of patients a concomitant risk factor for TE was identified, whereas 42.8% of patients developed TE spontaneously. A second TE event within primarily healthy siblings occurred in three of 313 families and a third event among siblings was observed in one family. In an unselected cohort of paediatric patients with symptomatic TE, the prevalence of ATD adjusted for family status was 5.1%. Given its clinical implication for patients and family members, thrombophilia testing should be performed and the benefit of medical or educational interventions should be evaluated in this high risk population.


Antithrombin deficiency; children; genetics

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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