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Nature. 2014 Jun 26;510(7506):518-21. doi: 10.1038/nature13433. Epub 2014 Jun 18.

Precision measurement of the Newtonian gravitational constant using cold atoms.

Author information

1
Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia and LENS, Università di Firenze - INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.
2
European Space Agency, Keplerlaan 1, PO Box 299, 2200 AG Noordwijk ZH, The Netherlands.
3
Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, 40126, Bologna, Italy.

Abstract

About 300 experiments have tried to determine the value of the Newtonian gravitational constant, G, so far, but large discrepancies in the results have made it impossible to know its value precisely. The weakness of the gravitational interaction and the impossibility of shielding the effects of gravity make it very difficult to measure G while keeping systematic effects under control. Most previous experiments performed were based on the torsion pendulum or torsion balance scheme as in the experiment by Cavendish in 1798, and in all cases macroscopic masses were used. Here we report the precise determination of G using laser-cooled atoms and quantum interferometry. We obtain the value G = 6.67191(99) × 10(-11) m(3) kg(-1) s(-2) with a relative uncertainty of 150 parts per million (the combined standard uncertainty is given in parentheses). Our value differs by 1.5 combined standard deviations from the current recommended value of the Committee on Data for Science and Technology. A conceptually different experiment such as ours helps to identify the systematic errors that have proved elusive in previous experiments, thus improving the confidence in the value of G. There is no definitive relationship between G and the other fundamental constants, and there is no theoretical prediction for its value, against which to test experimental results. Improving the precision with which we know G has not only a pure metrological interest, but is also important because of the key role that G has in theories of gravitation, cosmology, particle physics and astrophysics and in geophysical models.

PMID:
24965653
DOI:
10.1038/nature13433

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