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Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Aug;100(2):514-23. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.083246. Epub 2014 Jun 25.

Effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor antagonism on appetite and food intake in healthy men.

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From the Department of Biomedicine and Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland (RES, ACM-G, PK, HF, FS, and CB), and the Department of Internal Medicine II, Clinical Research Unit, Clinical Center of the Ludwig Maximilians University, Campus Grosshardern, Munich, Germany (JS and BG).



Exogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) inhibits eating in healthy, overweight, and diabetic subjects.


The GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin(9-39)NH2 (ex9-39) was used to further explore the role of GLP-1 as an endogenous satiation signal.


Two double-blind, 4-way crossover studies were performed, each of which included 10 healthy men. In study A, subjects received an intravenous infusion of ex9-39 or saline plus an oral glucose preload and an intraduodenal infusion of saline or glucose for 60 min. In study B, intravenous infusions were identical, but an oral mixed-liquid meal preload and a 60-min intraduodenal infusion of saline or oleic acid were administered. Thirty minutes after oral preloads, subjects ate and drank ad libitum, and amounts ingested and the time to meal completion were quantified. In addition, appetite and plasma GLP-1, peptide YY (PYY), insulin, glucagon, and blood glucose concentrations were measured.


In both studies, GLP-1, PYY, and glucagon were substantially higher with intravenous ex9-39 than with intravenous saline (P ≤ 0.001). Insulin was lower with intravenous ex9-39 during intraduodenal glucose (P ≤ 0.05). The decrease in prospective food consumption and desire to eat during ad libitum eating after glucose ingestion was slightly attenuated (P ≤ 0.05 and P ≤ 0.01, respectively) with ex9-39. However, with intravenous ex9-39, food and fluid intakes and eating duration were not changed in either study.


GLP-1 receptor antagonism slightly modulates appetite during ad libitum eating, but food and fluid intakes and meal duration remain unchanged, suggesting that endogenous GLP-1 is a weak satiation signal. However, concomitant substantial increases in plasma PYY and glucagon may counteract a desatiating effect of ex9-39. The effect of ex9-39 on PYY secretion supports an autoinhibitory feedback mechanism that controls L cell secretion; the effect on insulin and glucagon confirms the role of GLP-1 in glycemic control through its action on pancreatic α and β cells.


[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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