Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
PLoS One. 2014 Jun 25;9(6):e100815. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100815. eCollection 2014.

Dietary cadmium intake and risk of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer in Danish postmenopausal women: a prospective cohort study.

Author information

Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Department of Preventive Medicine and Graduate Program in Public Health, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, United States of America.
Family and Community Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, Montana, United States of America.



Cadmium is a human lung carcinogen and possesses estrogen-like activity. This combination of carcinogenic and estrogenic activity makes cadmium a contaminant of high concern for hormone-related cancers. Diet and smoking are the main sources of cadmium exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary cadmium intake and risk of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer in Danish postmenopausal woman.


We estimated dietary cadmium intake in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort at enrolment 1993-97. The estimates were based on food frequency questionnaires and cadmium contents in all foods. Among 23,815 postmenopausal women we identified 1390 breast, 192 endometrial, and 146 ovarian cancer cases from enrolment through December 31, 2010 using the Danish Cancer Registry. Cox regression was used to analyse the association between dietary cadmium intake and cancer risk.


Mean dietary cadmium intake was 14 µg/day. Cadmium was not associated with breast cancer, incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87-1.13 per 10 µg higher dietary cadmium intake/day; endometrial cancer, IRR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.76-1.53; or ovarian cancer, IRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.78-1.70. We found a positive association between cadmium and endometrial cancer for the women with BMI<25 (IRR = 1.50, 95% CI: 0.94-2.39), whereas an inverse association was seen for the women with BMI≥25 (IRR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.42-1.12); p value for interaction = 0.02.


Our study does not indicate that our estimated dietary cadmium intake is associated with hormone-related cancers in women.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center