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PLoS One. 2014 Jun 25;9(6):e100590. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100590. eCollection 2014.

Autochthonous cases of mycetoma in Europe: report of two cases and review of literature.

Author information

1
Center for Tropical Diseases (CTD), Sacro Cuore Hospital, Negrar, Verona, Italy.
2
Microbiology Institute, AO Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy.
3
Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous infection involving cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues. It is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas, but sporadic cases have been reported also in countries of temperate climate. The purpose of this paper is to review the cases of mycetoma in European subjects (and presumably acquired in Europe), to give an insight in the main factors associated with this condition, and to describe two previously unpublished cases observed at our Centre.

METHODS AND FINDINGS:

PubMed was systematically searched for case reports and case series of mycetoma in Europeans reported between 1980 and 2014, using specific search strategies. Two further cases diagnosed by the authors are described. Forty-two cases were collected. Eleven cases were caused by Scedosporium apiospermium, mainly in immunosuppressed patients from Bulgaria, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain and the United Kingdom. Excluding all patients with immunosuppression, 29 cases remain. Most of them were reported from Bulgaria and in Albanian patients (all diagnosed outside Albania). In the Bulgarian case series many different micro-organisms, both bacteria and fungi, were isolated, while all the 5 cases from Albania were caused by Actinomadura spp. Other countries reporting cases were Greece, Italy and Turkey. In general, Actinomadura spp is the most frequent causative agent isolated, followed by Nocardia spp and Madurella mycetomatis. The foot was the most reported site involved. Most patients were medically treated, but unfortunately a long-term follow up (at least one year) was available only in a few cases.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our review and our own cases suggest that Europeans without travel history can be affected by Madura foot. The lack of a surveillance system is likely to cause an underreporting of cases. Moreover, the unfamiliarity of Western doctors with this peculiar infection may cause a mismanagement, including unnecessary amputations.

PMID:
24963778
PMCID:
PMC4070928
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0100590
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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