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J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 2017 Mar/Apr;16(2):140-148. doi: 10.1177/2325957414539195. Epub 2016 Jul 9.

Hopefulness Fosters Affective and Cognitive Constructs for Actions to Cope and Enhance Quality of Life among People Living with HIV in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.

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1 Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
3 Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
5 National Institute for Health Research, Mwanza, Tanzania.
2 Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
4 Department of Epidemiology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.


The aims of this study were to describe how people living with HIV (PLWH) perceive hope and illustrate implications for HIV care and treatment. This is a qualitative study done to explore perceptions and meanings of hope among PLWH attending care and treatment clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In all, 10 focus group discussions and 9 in-depth interviews were conducted. People living with HIV described the following 3 dimensions of hope: cognitive, positive emotions, and normalization. Being cognizant of the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment (ART) often led to positive emotions, such as feeling comforted or strengthened, which in turn was related to positive actions toward normalizing life. Improved treatment outcomes facilitated hope, while persistent health problems, such as ART side effects, were sources of negative emotions contributing to loss of hope among PLWH. Hope motivated positive health-seeking behaviors, including adherence to ART, and this may guide interventions to help PLWH cope and live positively with HIV.


HIV; Tanzania; cognitive; coping; hope; hopelessness

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