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Mol Microbiol. 2014 Aug;93(4):682-97. doi: 10.1111/mmi.12681. Epub 2014 Jul 16.

CarD integrates three functional modules to promote efficient transcription, antibiotic tolerance, and pathogenesis in mycobacteria.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Abstract

Although the basic mechanisms of prokaryotic transcription are conserved, it has become evident that some bacteria require additional factors to allow for efficient gene transcription. CarD is an RNA polymerase (RNAP)-binding protein conserved in numerous bacterial species and essential in mycobacteria. Despite the importance of CarD, its function at transcription complexes remains unclear. We have generated a panel of mutations that individually target three independent functional modules of CarD: the RNAP interaction domain, the DNA-binding domain, and a conserved tryptophan residue. We have dissected the roles of each functional module in CarD activity and built a model where each module contributes to stabilizing RNAP-promoter complexes. Our work highlights the requirement of all three modules of CarD in the obligate pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but not in Mycobacterium smegmatis. We also report divergent use of the CarD functional modules in resisting oxidative stress and pigmentation. These studies provide new information regarding the functional domains involved in transcriptional regulation by CarD while also improving understanding of the physiology of M. tuberculosis.

PMID:
24962732
PMCID:
PMC4127138
DOI:
10.1111/mmi.12681
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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