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Oncol Lett. 2014 Jul;8(1):7-11. Epub 2014 Apr 29.

Histological and molecular aspects of oral squamous cell carcinoma (Review).

Author information

1
Unit of Histology and Embryology, Department of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Talca, Talca 3460000, Chile ; Biomedical Sciences Master Program, Oral Pathology Mention, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Talca, Talca 3460000, Chile.
2
Unit of Oral Pathology, Department of Dentistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Talca, Talca 3460000, Chile.

Abstract

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) represents 95% of all forms of head and neck cancer, and over the last decade its incidence has increased by 50%. Oral carcinogenesis is a multistage process, which simultaneously involves precancerous lesions, invasion and metastasis. Degradation of the cell cycle and the proliferation of malignant cells results in the loss of control mechanisms that ensure the normal function of tissues. The aim of the current review is to present the histopathological features of OSCC, including potentially malignant changes, the international classification of tumors, the tumor invasion front and tumor biomarkers (Ki-67, p53, homeobox genes and collagen type IV), as well as the tumor microenvironment and function of cancer-associated fibroblasts in the most common type of oral cancer that is encountered by dental surgeons. In OSCC, associations have been identified between the proliferation, basal lamina degradation and connective tissue modulation. Therefore, the comparison of these factors with the survival time of OSCC patients from the histopathological diagnosis is of interest.

KEYWORDS:

Ki-67; collagen type IV; mouth neoplasms; oral cancer; oral squamous cell carcinoma; p53

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