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Lancet. 2014 Aug 9;384(9942):523-31. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62418-6. Epub 2014 Jun 18.

The expanding universe of disorders of the basal ganglia.

Author information

1
Movement Disorders Laboratory, Department of Neurology and Neuroscience Area, Clínica Universitaria and Medical School, and CIMA, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain; Centro de Investigación en Redes sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: jobeso@unav.es.
2
Centro de Investigación en Redes sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Madrid, Spain; Department of Neurology, University Hospital Donostia and Neuroscience Unit BioDonostia Research Institute, San Sebastian, Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao, Spain.
3
Movement Disorders Clinic, Second Department of Neurology, Attiko Hospital, University of Athens, Greece; Sobell Department of Motor Neurosciences and Movement Disorders, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK.
4
Sobell Department of Motor Neurosciences and Movement Disorders, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK.
5
Institute for Ageing and Health, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Abstract

The basal ganglia were originally thought to be associated purely with motor control. However, dysfunction and pathology of different regions and circuits are now known to give rise to many clinical manifestations beyond the association of basal ganglia dysfunction with movement disorders. Moreover, disorders that were thought to be caused by dysfunction of the basal ganglia only, such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, have diverse abnormalities distributed not only in the brain but also in the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems; this knowledge poses new questions and challenges. We discuss advances and the unanswered questions, and ways in which progress might be made.

PMID:
24954674
DOI:
10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62418-6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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