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J Affect Disord. 2014;167:93-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.05.060. Epub 2014 Jun 6.

Prevalence and clinical correlates of co-occurring insomnia and hypersomnia symptoms in depression.

Author information

1
Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, USA.
2
Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Science, Stanford University Medical Center, USA.
3
Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, USA. Electronic address: aharvey@berkeley.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The aim was to examine the prevalence and consequences of co-occurring insomnia and hypersomnia symptoms in depressed adults drawn from a representative sample of the U.S. population.

METHOD:

Data from 687 National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) respondents meeting criteria for a major depressive episode (MDE) in the past year were included. Respondents completed clinical interviews that assessed 12-month DSM-IV disorders, impairment, mental health treatment, and depressive symptom severity. Outcomes were compared between respondents who experienced insomnia symptoms-only (N=404), hypersomnia symptoms-only (N=44), both insomnia and hypersomnia symptoms (N=184) and no sleep problems (N=55) during an MDE.

RESULTS:

Insomnia and hypersomnia symptoms co-occurred in 27.7% of respondents with past-year MDEs, most frequently in bipolar spectrum disorders and major depressive disorder with dysthymia. Similar to the insomnia-only group, respondents with co-occurring sleep disturbances had more severe depression, and higher rates of past-year impulse control disorders and suicide planning. Similar to the hypersomnia-only group, respondents with co-occurring sleep disturbances had higher rates of past-year drug use disorders and suicide attempts. Compared to the insomnia-only and no sleep problem groups, respondents with both sleep disturbances were more frequently in mental health treatment, seeing a general practitioner, and taking antidepressants.

LIMITATIONS:

The NCS-R is cross-sectional and did not evaluate sleep disorder diagnoses.

CONCLUSIONS:

Co-occurring insomnia and hypersomnia symptoms were associated with a more severe MDE. Further research is warranted to more fully understand the joint presentation of insomnia and hypersomnia in depression.

KEYWORDS:

Depression; Hypersomnia; Insomnia; Mood disorders

PMID:
24953480
PMCID:
PMC4291280
DOI:
10.1016/j.jad.2014.05.060
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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